Populism in Bulgaria Between Politicization of Media and Mediatization of Politics
Languages of publication
Populism as a political position and rhetorical style is nowadays an object of comprehensive research and multi-faceted social discussions. The strong critical attitude of populists towards the status quo, towards what they regard as the chimera of democracy, is generally intertwined with the function of the media as a corrective factor with regard to government authorities. The development of mankind in the present is characterized by transformation trends in technological, economic, and social spheres. These trends impact the political environment as well. The challenges of the economic crisis, as well as the migration processes are strengthening the position of euro-skeptics and revitalize the development of populism. The present text is focused on the developments of political populism in Bulgaria. The political environment in the country is characterized by almost permanent merge of political entities, which gradually escalates the use of populist approaches, styles and rhetoric. Research attention to this political phenomenon is determined by the success of some newly formed populist parties during the new century, gradually winning considerable numbers of seats in the parliament. The use of populist phraseology is evident among all political parties in the country, whether left- or right-oriented. Bulgarian political actors of a populist trend – including political leaders and parties – have mixed, oftentimes changing, characteristics. this populist phraseology is transmitted to audiences mainly through the media. It has to be noted that the dynamics of the pre-election campaigns during the period of democratization since 1989 has been developing alongside demonopolization, liberalization and transformation of the media system. Deregulation of the radio and TV broadcasting sector dragged on, giving way to the development of two mutually bound processes – politicization of the media and mediatization of politics. The paper is structured in three methodologically interconnected parts, presenting: an overview of the process of politicization of the media and mediatization of politics in Bulgaria; an analysis of the political populist trends in the country; a discussion on the connections between populism and the media.
- Badzhakov M. (2010). Politicheskata korektnost sreshtu liberalnata tolerantnost [Political Correctness vs Liberal Tolerance] Helikon: Sofia.
- BNT (2015). Sporazumenie za otrazyavane na predizbornata kampaniya za proizvejdane a izbori za kmetove i obshtinski savetnici na 15. 10. 2015 [Agreement on coverage of the election campaign for holding elections for mayors and municipal councilors on 25. 10. 2015] http://bnt.bg/file/2014/08/sporaz_kmetove.pdf., 18. 08. 2016.
- Canovan M. (1981). Populism. Harcourt Brace Jovanovic: New York.
- Council for Electronic Media (2015). Public Register http://www.cem.bg, 18. 08. 2016.
- How To Detect Propaganda (1937). Propaganda Analysis, No 1
- Jagers J., Walgrave S. (2007). Populism as Political Communication Style: An Empirical Study of Political Parties’ Discourse in Belgium. European Journal of Political Research, No 46, 319–345, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00690.x
- Kabakchieva Р. (2009). Show populizam - noviyat politiko-medien zhanr [Show Populism – the New Political-Media Genre]. http://www.fmd.bg/?p=2036 25.04.2009, 18. 08. 2016.
- Kabakchieva Р. (2008). Ima li pochva natsionalpopulizmat u nas. [Is there a Native Soil for the Nationalpopulism in Bulgaria] http://www.bghelsinki.org/bg/publikacii/obektiv/petia-kabakchieva/2008-06/ima-li-pochva-nacionalpopulizmt-u-nas/. 18. 08. 2016.
- Krastev I. (2007). Populistkiyat moment. [The Populist moment] Critique & Humanism, No 23, 107–113.
- Krasteva A. (2013). Balgarskiyat populizam: shtrihi kam portreta [The Bulgarian Populism – Sketches to Portrait]. https://annakrasteva.wordpress.com/2013/12/23/bulgraian-populism/, 18. 08. 2016.
- Malinov S. (2007). Razmisli za balgarskiya populizam. [Thoughts on Bulgarian Populism] Critique & Humanism, 23(1),71-84.
- Mudde C. (2007). Populistkiyat Zeitgeist v dneshna Evropa. [The Populist Zeitgeist in Nowadays Europe] Critique and Humanism, (23), 115–119.
- National Statistical Institute (2015). Publishing Activity: Books, Newspapers and Magazines. http://www.nsi.bg/en/content/4551/publishing-activity-books-newspapers-and-magazines, 18. 08. 2016.
- Peicheva D. (2011). Medializiranata realnost [Mediatized reality]. SW Publishing House: Blagoevgrad.
- Peicheva D. (2003). Ikonomika i komunikazii. Svetat na komunikaziite ili medialnoto obshtestvo [Economics and communications. The world of communications and mediatized society]. Quasar Publishing House: Sofia.
- Petev T. (2001). Komunikaciya i socialna promyana [Communication and social change]. Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski": Sofia
- Raycheva L. (2013). Fenomenat televiziya [The Television Phenomenon]. Tip-Top Press: Sofia.
- Raycheva L. (2013a). Televizionnata politicheska reklama mejdu politizaciyata na mediiete i mediatizaciyata na politikata (1990-2013). [The TV Political Advertizing between Politicization of Media and Mediatization of Politics (1990-2013)] http://www.newmedia21.eu/izsledvaniq/televizionnata-predizborna-reklama-mezhdu-politizatsiyata-na-mediite-i-mediatizatsiyata-na-politikata-1990-2013/, 18. 08. 2016.
- Raycheva L., Petev T. (2003). Mass Media’s Changing Landscape in Bulgaria. In: D. Paletz, K. Jakubowicz (eds.). Business as Usual. Continuity and Change in Central and Eastern Europe, 73-109. Hampton Press, Inc.: Cresskill, New Jersey
- Reporters without Borders. (2016). 20165 World Press Freedom Index. https://rsf.org/en/ranking, 18. 08. 2016.
- Rupnik Z. (2014). Populizmat v Tsentralna i Iztochna Evropa: Analiz [Populism in Central and Eastern Europe: an Analysis] Literaturen vestnik: Sedmichno izdanie.
- Smilov D. (2008). Frustratsiya na demokratsiyata. [Frustration of Democracy] Obektiv, 159, 26–27.
- Spasov S. (2014). Ezikat na omrazata – Slengat na populizma [Language of Hatred – The Slang of Populism]. http://clubz.bg/4509-ezikyt_na_omrazata_%E2%80%93_slengyt_na_populizma, 18. 08. 2016.
Publication order reference