2018 | 2 |
Article title

Geomedia and privacy in context. Paradoxical behavior or the unwitting sharing of geodata with digital platforms?

Title variants
Languages of publication
The increasing pervasiveness of media in society implies the ubiquitous processes of geodata-capture and real-time feedback. The concept of Geomedia considers these developments and raises the questions of geoprivacy and corporate surveillance. The aim of this study was to investigate what kinds of geolocation data are shared wittingly or unwittingly, and in what contexts. Beyond that, we ask how much individuals know about the data-sharing processes and the underlying commercial logic, and how they act upon this knowledge (whether paradoxically or not). Our study was theoretically framed by contextual privacy (Nissenbaum 2011), because we assumed that a violation of privacy is perceived differently according to the context. The quasi-experimental design (using a WiFi-capture device) combined with a questionnaire revealed the participants’ attitudes to, and awareness of, data sharing, and their understanding of geoprivacy and geomedia use. The main results show that people are aware of the underlying commercial logic, have privacy concerns and, strongly depending on contextual factors, their knowledge and capabilities, act upon this awareness. Finally, we show that smartphones covertly share a huge amount of meta and traffic data.
Physical description
  • Abernathy D. (2017). Using geodata & geolocation in the social sciences. Sage: Los Angeles, London, New Delhi.
  • Acquisti A., Gross R. (2006). Imagined Communities: Awareness, Information Sharing, and Privacy on the Facebook. In G. Danezis & P. Golle (Eds.), Privacy Enhancing Technologies. Springer: Berlin, pp. 36–58.
  • Altheide D. L., Snow R. P. (1979). Media Logic. Sage: New York.
  • Andrejevic M. (2005). The Work of Watching One Another: Lateral Surveillance, Risk, and Governance. Surveillance & Society, vol. 2(4), pp. 479–497.
  • Arendt H. (1958). The human condition. Univ. of Chicago Press: Chicago.
  • Bailey K. D. (1994). Methods of Social Research (4th ed. ed.). The Free Press: New York.
  • Barnes S. B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday, vol. 11(9).
  • Barreneche C., Wilken R. (2015). Platform specificity and the politics of location data extraction. European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 18(4–5), pp. 497–513.
  • boyd d. (2014). It’s complicated: the social lives of networked teens. Yale Univ. Press: New Haven. Christensen M. (2014). Technology, Place and Mediatized Cosmopolitanism. In A. Hepp & F. Krotz (Eds.), Mediatized Worlds: Culture and Society in a Media Age. Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, pp. 159–173.
  • Christensen M., Jansson A. (2015). Complicit surveillance, interveillance, and the question of cosmopolitanism: Toward a phenomenological understanding of mediatization. New Media & Society, vol. 17(9), pp. 1473–1491.
  • Couldry N., Hepp A. (2017). The continuing lure of the mediated centre in times of deep mediatization: Media Events and its enduring legacy. Media, Culture & Society, vo. 40(1), pp. 114–117.
  • Debatin B. (2011). Ethics, Privacy, and Self-Restraint in Social Networking. In S. Trepte & L. Reinecke (Eds.), Privacy online: perspectives on privacy and self-disclosure in the social web. Springer: Berlin, pp. 47–60.
  • Debatin B., Lovejoy J. P., Horn A.-K., Hughes B. N. (2009). Facebook and Online Privacy: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Unintended Consequences. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 15(1), pp. 83–108.
  • DeCew J. (2018). Privacy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2018 Edition).
  • Deuze M. (2012). Media Life. Polity Press: Cambridge.
  • Dienlin T., Trepte S. (2014). Is the privacy paradox a relic of the past? An in-depth analysis of privacy attitudes and privacy behaviors. European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 45(3), pp. 285–297.
  • Estes B. (2016). Geolocation—The Risk and Benefits of a Trending Technology. ISACA Journal, vol. 5.
  • Fischer F. (2010). Wertschöpfung 2.0: Neue Produktions- und Nutzungspraktiken auf dem Geoinformationsmarkt.
  • GW-Unterricht, vol. 120, pp. 30–46.
  • Fried C. (1970). An Anatomy of Values. Harvard University Press: Cambridge.
  • Fuchs C. (2011). Towards an alternative concept of privacy. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society, vol. 9(4), pp. 220–237.
  • Geospatial Media and Communications. (2018). GEOBUIZ. Geospatial Industry Outlook & Readiness Index. Retrieved from 15.04.2018.
  • Gryl I., Jekel T. (2012). Re-centring Geoinformation in Secondary Education: Toward a Spatial Citizenship Approach. Cartographica, vol. 47(1), pp. 18–28.
  • Gryl I., Jekel T., Donert K. (2010). GI and Spatial Citizenship. In T. Jekel, A. Koller, K. Donert, & R. Vogler (Eds.), Learning with Geoinformation V – Lernen mit Geoinformation V. Wichmann: Berlin, pp. 2–11.
  • Habermas J. (1962). Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit. Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft (Vol. 1. Aufl., unveränd. Nachdr. der zuerst 1962 im Luchterhand-Verl. ersch. Ausg., erg. um ein Vorw.). Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main.
  • Haklay M. (2017). Volunteered Geographic Information and Citizen Science. In R. Kitchin, T. P. Lauriault, & M. W. Wilson (Eds.), Understanding spatial media. Sage: Los Angeles, pp. 127–135.
  • Hepp A. (2017). Transforming Communications. Media-related Changes in Times of Deep Mediatization. Communicative Figurations – Working Paper No. 16. ZeMKI, Zentrum für Medien-, Kommunikations- und Informationsforschung: Bremen.
  • Hjarvard S. (2008). The Mediatization of Society. A Theory of the Media as Agentsof Social and Cultural Change. Nordicom Review, vol. 29(2), pp. 105–134.
  • Hjarvard S. (2013). The mediatization of culture and society (1. publ. ed.). Routlege: London.
  • Jansson A. (2015). Interveillance: A New Culture of Recognition and Mediatization. Media and Communication, vol. 3(3), pp. 81–90.
  • Jansson A. (2018). Mediatization and Mobile Lives. A Critical Approach. New York: Routledge.
  • Jekel T., Sanchez E., Gryl I., Juneau-Sion C., Lyon J. (Eds.). (2014). Learning and teaching with geomedia. Cambridge Scholars Publ.: Newcastle upon Tyne.
  • Kant I. (1996). An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? First Published 1798. In M. J. Gregor (Ed.), Immanuel Kant. Practical Philosophy. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • Klauser F., Widmer S. (2017). Surveillance and Control. In R. Kitchin, T. P. Lauriault, & M. W. Wilson (Eds.), Understanding spatial media. Sage: Los Angeles, pp. 216–224.
  • Krotz F. (2007). The meta-process of `mediatization’ as a conceptual frame. Global Media and Communication, vol. 3(3), pp. 256–260.
  • Krotz F. (2017). Explaining the Mediatisation Approach. Javnost – The Public, vol. 24(2), pp. 103–118.
  • Lapenta F. (2011). Geomedia: on location-based media, the changing status of collective image production and the emergence of social navigation systems. Visual Studies, vol. 26(1), pp. 14–24.
  • Leszczynski A. (2017). Geoprivacy. In R. Kitchin, T. P. Lauriault, & M. W. Wilson (Eds.), Understanding spatial media. Sage: Los Angeles, pp. 235–244.
  • Marwick A. E. (2012). The Public Domain: Surveillance in Everyday Life. Surveillance & Society, vol. 9(4), pp. 378–393.
  • Marwick A. E., boyd d. (2014). Networked privacy: How teenagers negotiate context in social media. New Media & Society, vol. 16(7), pp. 1051–1067.
  • McQuire S. (2016). Geomedia. Networked Cities and the Future of Public Space. Polity: Cambridge.
  • McStay A. (2017). Privacy and the Media. Sage: London.
  • Murakami Wood D. (2017). Spatial Profiling, Sorting and Prediction. In R. Kitchin, T. P. Lauriault, & M. W. Wilson (Eds.), Understanding spatial media. Sage: Los Angeles, pp. 225–234.
  • Murdock G. (2017). Mediatisation and the Transformation of Capitalism: The Elephant in the Room. Javnost – The Public, vol. 24(2), pp. 119–135.
  • Nissenbaum H. (2010). Privacy in context. Stanford Law Books: Stanford.
  • Nissenbaum H. (2011). A Contextual Approach to Privacy Online. Daedalus, vol. 140(4), pp. 32–48.
  • O’Neil C. (2016). Weapons of Math Destruction. Discover, vol. 37(8), pp. 50–55.
  • Rheingold H. (2002). Smart Mobs. The Next Social Revolution. Basic Books: New York.
  • Ricker B. (2017). GIS. In R. Kitchin, T. P. Lauriault, & M. W. Wilson (Eds.), Understanding spatial media. Sage: Los Angeles, pp. 25–34.
  • Saker M. (2016). Foursquare and identity: Checking-in and presenting the self through location. New Media & Society, vol. 19 (6), pp. 934–949.
  • Schwartz R., Halegoua G. R. (2014). The spatial self: Location-based identity performance on social media. New Media & Society, vol. 17(10), pp. 1643–1660.
  • Steinmaurer T. (2014). Mediatized Connectivity: Historical Traits of Telephony and Theoretical Considerations about a New Dispositive of Communication. In A. Hepp, F. Krotz (Eds.), Mediatized Worlds: Culture and Society in a Media Age. Palgrave Macmillan: Houndmills, pp. 91–106.
  • Steinmaurer T., Atteneder H. (2018). Permanent Connectivity: From Modes of Restrictions to Strategies of Resistance and Questions of Digital Ethics. In T. Eberwein, M. Karmasin, F. Krotz, M. Rath (Eds.), Responsibility and Resistance: Ethics in Mediatized Worlds. Springer: Wiesbaden, pp. 101–117.
  • Thielmann T., van der Velden L., Fischer F., Vogler R. (2012). Dwelling in the Web: Towards a Googlization of Space. HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-03. SSRN: Social Science Research Network.
  • Westin A. (1984). The Origins of Modern Claims to Privacy. In F. D. Schoeman (Ed.), Philosophical dimensions of privacy. Cambridge Univ. Press: Cambridge, pp. 56–74.
  • Wilken R. (2018). The Necessity of Geomedia: Understanding the Significance of Location-Based Services and Data-Driven Platforms. In K. Fast, A. Jansson, J. Lindell, L. Ryan Bengtsson, M. Tesfahuney (Eds.), Geomedia Studies. Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds. Routledge: New York, pp. 21–40.
  • Zwick D., Dholakia N. (2001). Contrasting European and American Approaches to Privacy in Electronic Markets: Property Right versus Civil Right. Electronic Markets, vol. 11(2), pp. 116–120.
  • Zwick D., Dholakia N. (2004). Whose Identity Is It Anyway? Consumer Representation in the Age of Database Marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, vol. 24(1), pp. 31–43.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.