Teorie dóbr publicznych i zrównoważonego rozwoju w myśli filozoficznej Johna Locke’a
Theories of Public Goods and Sustainable Development in the Philosophical Thought of John Locke
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Humansare not able to change their nature other than through their own actions and with the participation of others. The full development of personal life can therefore only be achieved in society. Managing the available resources, through his activity, man delineates the boundaries between the private, the individual, and the public spheres. The decisive factor in the right to private property is the individual’s own work. In economic theory, public goods are a manifestation of market failure, as market mechanisms for regulating supply and demand do not apply to the market for the quantity of goods supplied to the market. The theory of public goods is therefore primarily the subject of economic research and analysis, and the idea of the common good is the domain of philosophical reflection, especially of political philosophy. Considering the dynamic progress of civilization and the associated process of exploiting the natural environment in human economic activity, the policy of proper use of natural resources, taking into account the respect for the common good of the general public, is increasingly important. The answer to the challenges of the present day is the theory of sustainable development developed, in particular, in the green economy. It is considered to be a socio‑philosophical idea, the direction of economic development, as well as the direction of scientific research, and it comprehensively deals with the problem of the long‑term ability of the modern economy to develop upon the criterion of intergenerational justice. The article addresses issues of public goods theory and sustainable development in the context of Locke’s philosophical thought. The emancipation of Locke’s philosophical achievements manifests itself not only in the sphere of political philosophy, but also in the socio‑economic context, forming the skeleton of modern democratic states. Locke’s reflections, especially in the Two Treaties on Government, are an endorsement of individualism, economic freedom and economic liberalism, as well as the idea of a natural environment in the context of economic human activity. The practical realization of the common good in social, political and economic life suffers many difficulties in the conditions of the globalized world. Hence, interdisciplinary and deeper reflection on the real good perceived both by the individual and by the community is necessary. It also seems reasonable to discuss the ways of perceiving the common good and the public interest of present and future generations.
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