PL EN


2018 | 8 | 2 | 241-256
Article title

Individual and social consequences of old age stereotypes

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Individual and social consequences of old age stereotypes
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
PL
W dobie starzenia się społeczeństw konsekwencje stereotypów na temat starszego wieku wydają się niedoceniane. Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie wpływu wiekowych stereotypów na starzejące się jednostki i całe społeczeństwo, w oparciu o dostępne dane empiryczne. W części wprowadzającej zdefiniowano pojęcie stereotypu, następnie omówiono indywidualne i społeczne konsekwencje stereotypów na temat starszego wieku. Analiza przytoczonych danych empirycznych na temat skutków stereotypizacji wieku senioralnego rodzi przekonanie, że pozytywne zmiany w zakresie stereotypowych sądów na temat starszego wieku mogą prowadzić do poprawy funkcjonowania fizycznego, psychicznego i społecznego osób w starszym wieku, z drugiej strony, bazując na realnym rozpoznaniu ich możliwości, lepszego wykorzystania przez społeczeństwo ich potencjału.
EN
In the era of aging societies the consequences of old age stereotypes seem to be  underestimated. The aim of the article is to present the influence of old age stereotypes on aging individuals and the society as a whole, based on the available empirical data. The article begins with a definition of a stereotype and  then it analyses individual and social consequences of old age stereotypes. The analysis of the cited empirical data about the consequences of these stereotypes leads to a belief that positive changes in ageing stereotypes can result in improved physical, psychological and social functioning of elderly people and a realistic identification of their potential may lead to a better utilization of their impact in the society.
Year
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
241-256
Physical description
Dates
published
2018-10-06
Contributors
References
  • Bat-Chava Y. (1994). Group identification and self-esteem in deaf adults. “Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin”, 20, 494–502.
  • Branscombe N. R., Schmitt M., Harvey R. (1999). Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African-Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 77(1), 135–149.
  • Butler R.N. (1969). Age-ism: Another form of bigotry. “The Gerontologist”, 9(4), 243–246.
  • Butler R.N. (1975). Why Survive? Being old in America. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Courtney M., Tong S., Walsh A. (2000). Older patients in acute care settings: Rural and metropolitan nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. “Australian Journal of Rural Health”, 8(1), 94–102.
  • Crocker J., Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. “Psychological Review”, 96(4), 608–630.
  • Coleman P., Aubin A., Robinson M., Ivani-Chalian C., Briggs R. (1993). Predictors of depressive symptoms and low self-esteem in a follow-up study of elderly people over 10 years. “International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry”, 8(4), 343-349.
  • Chasteen A.L., Bhattacharyya S., Horhota M., Tam R., Hasher L. (2005). How feelings of stereotype threat influence older adults’ memory performance. “Experimental Aging Research”, 31(3), 235–260.
  • Cleveland J.N., Shore L.M. (1996). Work and employment. In: Birren J.E. (ed.). Encyclopedia of gerontology, Vol 2, New York: Academic Press.
  • Derejczyk J. (2000). Geriatria a reforma ochrony zdrowia w Polsce. „Służba Zdrowia”, 61-64, 2954-2957, August 3-14.
  • Dellasega C., Curriero F. C. (1991). The effects of institutional and community experiences on nursing students’ intentions toward work with the elderly. “Journal of Nursing Education”, 30(9), 405–410.
  • Desrichard O., Kopetz C. (2005). A threat in the elder: The impact of task instructions, self-efficacy and performance expectations on memory performance in the elderly. “European Journal of Social Psychology”, 35(4), 537–552.
  • Essex M., Klein M. (1989). The importance of self-concept and coping resources in explaining physical health status and depression among older women. “Journal of Aging and Health”, 1(3), 327-348.
  • Erber J.T., Prager I.G., Williams M., Caiola M.A. (1996). Age and forgetfulness: Confidence in ability and attribution for memory failures. “Psychology and Aging”, 11(2), 310–315.
  • Fiske S.T., Cuddy A.J.C., Glick P.S., Xu J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 82(6), 878–902.
  • Garstka T.A., Schmitt M.T., Branscombe N.R., Hummert M.L. (2004). How young and older adult differ in their responses to perceived discrimination. “Psychology and Aging”, 19, 326–335.
  • Hausdorff J.M., Levy B.R., Wei J.Y. (1999). The power of ageism on physical function of older persons: Reversibility of age-related gait changes. “Journal of the American Geriatrics Society”, 47(11), 136–139.
  • Hess T.M., Auman C., Colcombe S.J., Rahhal T.A. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. “Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences”, 58(1), 3-11.
  • Hess T.M., Hinson J.T. (2006). Age-related variation in the influences of aging stereotypes on memory in adulthood. “Psychology and Aging”, 21(3), 621–625.
  • Heidrich S., Ryff C.D. (1993). The role of social comparison processes in the psychological adaptation of the elderly. “Journal of Gerontology, Psychological Sciences”, 48, 127-136.
  • Heckhausen J., Brim O.G. (1997). Perceived problems for self and others: Self-protection by social downgrading throughout adulthood. “Psychology and Aging”, 12(4), 610-619.
  • Iversen T.N., Larsen L., Solem P.E. (2009). A conceptual analysis of Ageism. “Nordic Psychology”, 61(3), 4-22.
  • Kilian M. (2007). Niepełnosprawni w społeczeństwie. „Polityka Społeczna”, 404-405(11-12), 14-18.
  • Kilian M. (2009). Geragogika specjalna w dobie starzenia się społeczeństw. In: Dycht M., Marszałek L. (eds.). Dylematy (niepełno)sprawności – rozważania na marginesie studiów kulturowo-społecznych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Salezjańskie.
  • Kilian M. (2004). Źródła ageizmu i jego przejawy we współczesnym świecie. „Gerontologia Polska”, 12(3), 125-128.
  • Levy B.R. (2003). Mind matters: cognitive and physical effects of aging self-stereotypes. “Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences”, 58(4), 203-211.
  • Levy B.R., Banaji M.R. (2002). Implicit ageism. In: Nelson T. (ed.). Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons.Cambridge: MIT.
  • Levy B. (1996). Improving memory in old age through implicit self-stereotyping. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 71(6), 1092-1107.
  • Levy B., Langer E. (1994). Ageing free from negative stereotypes: Successful memory in China and among the American deaf. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 66(6), 989-997.
  • Levy B., Slade M.D., Gill T.M. (2006). Hearing decline predicted by elders’ stereotypes. “Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences”, 61(2), 82-87.
  • Levy B.R., Slade M.D., Kasl S.V. (2002). Longitudinal benefit of positive self-perceptions of aging on functional health”. “Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences”, 57(5), 1-9.
  • Levy B.R., Slade M.D., May J., Caracciolo E. (2006). Physical recovery after acute myocardial infarction: Positive age self-stereotypes as a resource. “International Journal of Aging and Human Development”, 62(4), 285–301.
  • Levy B.R., Slade M.D., Kunkel S.R., Kasl S.V. (2002). Attitudes and social cognition. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 83(2), 261–270.
  • Major B., Spencer S., Schmader T., Wolfe C., Crocker J. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. “Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin”, 24(1), 34–50.
  • Mroczek D.K., Kolarz C.M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: A developmental perspective on happiness. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 75(5), 1333–1349.
  • O’Brien Cousins S. (2000). ‘‘My heart couldn’t take it’’: Older women’s beliefs about exercise benefits and risks. “Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences”, 55(5), 283-294.
  • Orpen C. (1995). The effects of perceived age discrimination on employee job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and job involvement. “Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behaviour”, 32(3–4), 55–56.
  • Palmore E.B. (1999). Ageism: Negative and Positive. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Palmore E. (2001). The ageism survey: First findings. “The Gerontologist”, 41(5), 572–575.
  • Ryan E.B. (1992). Beliefs about memory across the life span. “Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences”, 47, 41-47.
  • Redersdorff S., Martinot D., Branscombe N. (2004). The impact of thinking about group-based disadvantages or advantages on women’s well-being: An experimental test of the rejection-identification model. “Current Psychology of Cognition”, 22(2), 203–222.
  • Rosset E. (1974). Starzenie się społeczeństw – problem demograficzny XX wieku. In: Problemy ludzi starych w Polsce, Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.
  • Sarkisian C.A., Prochaska T.R., Wong M.D., Hirsh S.H., Mangione C.M. (2005). The relationship between expectations for aging and physical activity among older adults. “Journal of General Internal Medicineę, 20(10), 911–915.
  • Steele C.M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. “American Psychologist”, 52(6), 613–629.
  • Steele C.M, Aronson J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology”, 69(5), 797-811.
  • Spencer S., Steele C.M., Quinn D. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. “Journal of Experimental Social Psychology”, 35(1), 4–28.
  • Scheff T. (1966). Being Mentally Ill. Chicago: Aldine.
  • Schmitt M.T., Spears R., Branscombe N.R. (2003). Constructing a minority group identity out of shared rejection: The case of international students. “European Journal of Social Psychology”, 33(1), 1–12.
  • Segrave K. (2001). Age discrimination by employers. Jefferson: Mc-Farland & Company.
  • Tajfel H., Turner J.T. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In: Worchel S., Austin W. (eds.). Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
  • Ward R.A. (1977). The impact of subjective age and stigma on older persons. “Journal of Gerontology”, 32(2), 227-232.
  • Van Willigen M. (2000). Differential trends among elderly persons and implications for the future. “The Journals of Gerontology”, 55(5), 308.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_21697_fp_2018_2_17
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.