In the Book of Daniel human kingdoms are presented in the context of bistory, especially in the four-kingdom schema (Dan 2 and 7) which depicts the rise and fali of kings and kingdoms. The theme of Dan 1-6 is that human kingdoms are transitory. Gentile kings bring about their downfali by arrogance and idolatry (i.e. Dan 5). The ultimate kingdom will be set up by God. In the Book o f Daniel the kingdom o f G od provides the frame for human bistory. In the end God will establish his kingdom, but for the time being He bas given dominion over the earth to worldly kings. From this perspective, earthly monarchs must recognize God as a sovereign over human kingdoms. If pagan kings do it, the kingdom is restored to them (i.e. Dan 4); if they refuse, the royal power is taken away from them (i.e. Dan 5). In the apocalyptic visions (Dan 8-12) this situation is completely different. Human kingdoms revolt against God. Ali visions contain a review of history prior to Antiochus Epiphanes, focus on his career and predict his fali caused by divine power. Antiochus Epiphanes is portrayed as a symbol o f evil because o f his rebelii on against God, revealed in the desecration of the tempie and the persecution o f the faithful Jewś. As a result, pagan kings and kingdoms will be annihilated and God will show his power.