The text concerns scientific publishing series “Biblioteka XX vek”, initiated in 1971 by Ivan Colović, Serbian anthropologist and publicist. During 50 years it has become an important cultural institution, which, due to its commitment to the current political and ideological affairs, gained a special role during the breakup of socialist Yugoslavia and then in terms of system transformation. In the 1990s it was an independent platform for the exchange of ideas, an ideological alternative to the nationalist regime, space for its deconstruction and criticism. “Biblioteka XX vek” takes part in animating intellectual Yugosphere − it consolidates the society of authors from former Yugoslav countries around such topics as: the memory of communism, Europeanisation of the Balkans, course and consequences of the transformation. The series paved the way for modern humanistic thought and modern scientific discourse in Serbia as well as supported these processes also in the ex-Yugoslav countries.