A multitude of attempts to reform the Polish healthcare system cannot be treated as fully successful. Therefore, there is a need to determine new possible methods that can solve financial, social, and environmental problems burdening the system. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present necessary steps that have to be taken in order to conduct a successful reform. Moreover, the article presents an overview of the current state of the theory of sustainable organisation, sustainable human capital management and resilience. Proper implementation of the key elements of the above-mentioned theories may turn out helpful in the process of modernisation of human capital management in the Polish healthcare system.