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2012 | 4 | 11-46

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Problem długu publicznego w państwach Unii Gospodarczej i Walutowej


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Public debt and the increasing indebtedness of states is not a new phenomenon even in the context of bankruptcy of state. In the past we have already experienced internal and external state insolvency. What causes today’s increase in preoccupation with external bankruptcy, except for global dimension of debt, is a change in its structure. An increasing number of states uses foreign debt to finance budget and trade imbalances. This tendency is observed among developing as well as developed states, including Economic and Monetary Union member states. The increase in external debt is in large part caused by privet debt which in certain circumstances is transferred to state. The level of total external debt of many Euro Zone member states in relation to GDP is much higher than the level of public debt. These are the reasons that justify the fear for the future of Euro Zone after bankruptcy of some of the member states. What increases the level of fear is the fact that the actions undertaken by European Union and EMU do not cause expected results and therefore cannot be judged positively. Paradoxically, some of them have only political and PR dimensions. Politicians may brag about their resolve to defend the once adopted solutions and markets may remain in their illusion that the present situation is only temporary. How long will it last? Last actions seem to be just a game designed to gain some more time to prepare different solutions such as fundamental and subjective restructuring of Euro Zone and – who knows? – maybe even of the European integration as such. The words of European Central Bank president Mario Draghi (August 2, 2012) stressing the fact that there’s no turning back from the Euro and that he is going to defend the common currency need to be understood in that context. The belief in the solidarity of states and optimistic outlook for the future should not result in such dramatic and desperate words.






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