The paper concentrates on the protection of personal data in the European Union. The paper presents a comprehensive reform of the data protection frame‑ work, proposed by the European Commission in January 2012, including a policy Communication setting out the Commission’s objectives and two legislative pro‑ posals: a regulation setting out a general EU framework for data protection and a directive on protecting personal data processed for the purposes of prevention, detection, investigation or prosecution of criminal offences and related judicial activities. Both proposals concern the question of ensuring effective protection of fundamental rights. The analysis of the proposed legislation shows nevertheless that in this shape they do not lead to consistency and uniformity of the entire system of personal data protection in the EU. Significant differences in both proposals concern including different subject matter and material scope, effective protection of fundamental rights and the establishment of the hierarchy of the existing legal acts in this area.