System sankcji w prawie wykroczeń europejskich państw socjalistycznych
The system of sanctions in the Misdemeanour Law of European socialist countries
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After the 2nd World War the Misdemeanour Law of European socialist countries inc- luded, apart from the traditional penalties, measures of an educational character. The assumption of gradual abolition of repressive measures accompanying the development of a socialist society lay in the basis for introducing them. Typically, a ﬁne was the basic sanction for committing an oﬀence. The highest upper limit of ﬁne was provided for in the legislation of Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland. It was the Polish Misdemeanour Law which used the maximum allowable ﬁne most often. Custodial detention was common in the Misdemeanour Laws of Yugoslavia as well as in Poland, which also used the al- ternative penalty of arrest and detention in cases of non-payment of a ﬁne. In Hungary and the Soviet Union, the penalty of detention was of exceptional character. However, as its upper time limit of detention was three times higher than in other countries, the Polish Misdemeanour Law is to be perceived as being the most restrictive. The pu- nishment of a three-months detention for every third misdemeanour committed, was provided for in the Misdemeanour Law codiﬁcation of 1971 of the People’s Poland.
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