Antynomiczne dyrektywy radykalnego sabataizmu jako wyraz etyki „odwróconej” według Gershoma Scholema
Antinomic Directives of the Radical Sabbataism Movement as an Expression of the “Upturned” Ethics after Gershom Scholem
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This article presents the radical wing of sabbataism (sabbatianism) – the messianic-mystical movement of heterodox Judaism which arose in the 17th century and flourished in the Ottoman Empire, founded by Sabbatai Zevi. This is done according to the works of Gershom Scholem and from the point of view of the ethical principles in their dimension directed to sexual life which the sabbataistic extremists, mainly from the Dönmeh group, had chosen as binding and obligatory ones. The distinctive feature of these directives compared to conventionally dominant ones was their “upturned” character. Therefore, the article will discuss the antinomism of which – as a tendency being opposed to the normative comprehension of the rules, established here by the Jewish law (nomos) on the basis of the Torah – the radical ma’aminim are an exemplification. Nevertheless, this sabbataistic reversal in the formulation of the issues concerning carnality reveals the profound doctrinal base in the form of the kabbalistic writings and on their pages introduced mystical conceptual categories (taken up in the present article) – the groundwork from which is determined by the dichotomy Torah de-’Atzilut–Torah de-Beri’ah – and to which the sabbataists attributed the peculiar “upturned” modus of interpretation.
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