Obraza uczuć religijnych, czyli kontrowersje wokół artykułu 196 kodeksu karnego
Insulting Religious Feelings – Controversy over Article 196 of the Polish Penal Code
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Article 196 of the Polish Penal Code regulating questions of insulting religious feelings is still a matter under discussion and the cause of differences in interpretation. There are several reasons for this. First, the sphere of religious feelings is very diverse and depends on the subjective sensitivity of each believer. This is the basis of the postulate of the research on the predominant social assessment of decisions concerning infringement of the law. Secondly, defi ning what the subject of religious veneration is requires references to specifi c religious groups, which in turn may indicate the different categories of the objects (material, personal, dogmatic, ritual), and this may then cause the problem of distinguishing “the object of religious veneration” and “the objects intended for religious veneration” not specified in the Penal Code. Thirdly, the limits of conflicting freedoms, as a result of their evolution and cultural changes, still arouse new controversies, as the restrictions on freedoms under the law are not suffi cient to resolve all doubts.
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