Ostatnie lata rządów Piotra Leopolda w Toskanii. Rewolta społeczna i odrzucenie reform
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When ruled by Peter Leopold (1765–1790), the Grand Duchy of Tuscany was regarded as the “model state of enlightened absolutism”. Young ruler carried out numerous reforms in his state. They were of political, social and economic nature. The area in which there was an attempt made to introduce considerable changes were the relationships between State and Church. The first stage of reforms was concluded with the synod of Pistoia. On occasion of holding this synod, the reformers, headed by bishop Scipione de’Ricci, tried to introduce a series of changes into the relationships inside the Church. The changes varied from those of organizational type to those referring to theology and dogmas. The aforementioned synod ended with the victory of reformers, yet an attempt to transfer its achievements into the territory of other dioceses of Tuscany faced the resistance of conservative episcopate and caused a spectacular defeat of the reformatory camp (gathering of bishops in Florence). The conflicts between State and Church, observable in the international scene, usually ended with the victory of State authorities but the plans to drum up the support of multitude for the Church reforms produced a countereffect in the form of riots against the reform-oriented clergy. The crowd protests in Prato, Pistoia and Florence were designed to defend the traditional model of religiousness, cult of saints, relics and pictures as well as the Latin language as used in liturgy. These protests forced the millieu of bishop de’Ricci to resign from the remarkable part of planned reforms.
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