What Makes Ethnic Groups in the United States Politically Effective
Languages of publication
This article concerns the potential influence of ethnic interest groups on U.S. foreign policy. Are they successful? It is rather difficult to answer this question. This article concentrates, though, on something else. By looking at the examples of some ethnic groups, and their activity it points to the circumstances that can potentially enhance their influence. It identifies and analyzes the groups' and their members' characteristics as well as the political environment they are lobbying in. Factors such as the identity of the members of the diaspora, the character of their relations with the country of origin, the degree of assimilation, their socio-economic status seem to be a matter of considerable significance. As far as the size of an ethnic population is concerned, it is more complicated. It is not the mere size of a particular ethnic population that counts but the number of people who really care. The article also analyses the external determinants that are in a groups' favor. The mobilization of potential activists is more probable when the interests of the country of origin are under threat, and when there is a clearly identifiable enemy. The potential for success increases when it is possible for the an ethnic interest group to build a coalition with other lobbies and when the goals that it tries to achieve are not in conflict with the interests of the United States, as it is perceived by decision makers.
- Ahrari, M., 1987, Coclusions, in: Ahrari, M. (ed.), Ethnic Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy, Greenwood Press, New York.
- Ambrosio, T., 2002a, Ethnic Identity Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy, in: Ambrosio, T. (ed.), Ethnic Identity Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy, Praeger, Westport.
- Ambrosio, T., 2002b, Entangling Alliances: The Turkish-Israeli Lobbying Partnership and Its Unintended Consequences, in: Ambrosio, T. (ed.), Ethnic Identity Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy, Praeger, Westport.
- Baumgartner F. R., The Growth and Diversity of U.S. Associations 1956-2004: Analyzing Trends Using the Encyclopedia of Associations. Working Paper, March 29, 2005.
- Bentley, A., 1908, The Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
- Berry, J., 1977, Lobbying for the People: The Political Behavior of Public Interest Groups, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
- Berry, J., 1993, Citizen Groups and the Changing Nature of Interest Group Politics in America, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 528, Citizens, Protest, and Democracy.
- Berry, J., 2002, Interest Groups and Gridlock, in: Cigler, A., Loomis, B., Interest Group Politics, 6th Ed., CQ Press, Washington D.C.
- Chong, D., 1991, Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movements, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
- Corrado, A., Mann, T.E., Ortiz, D.R., Potter, T., 2005, The New Campaign Finance Sourcebook, Brookings Institution Press, Washington D.C.
- Dahl, R.A., 1961, Who Governs?: Democracy and Power in American City, Yale University Press, New Haven.
- De La Raza, R.O., 1987, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Mexican-American Political Agenda, in: Ahrari, M. (ed.), Ethnic Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy, Greenwood Press, New York.
- Eckstein, S.E., 2009, The Immigrant Divide: How Cuban Americans Changed the US and Their Homeland, Routledge, New York.
- The Federalist Papers, 2005, Hacket Publishing Company, Indianapolis.
- Fleshler, D., 2009, Transforming America's Israel Lobby: The Limits of Its Power and the Potential for Change, Potomac Books, Washington D.C.
- Garret, S.A., 1978, Eastern European Groups and American Foreign Policy, “Political Science Quarterly”, vol. 93, no. 2.
- Gregg, H.S., 2002, Divided They Conquer: The Success of Armenian Ethnic Lobbies in the US, the Rosemary Rogers Working Paper Series.
- Haney, P.J, Vanderbush, W., 1999, The Role of Ethnic Interest Groups in U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of the Cuban American National Foundation, “International Studies Quarterly”, vol. 43, no. 2.
- Huntington, S.P., 1997, The Erosion of American National Interests, “Foreign Affairs”, vol. 76, no. 5.
- Kollman K., 1998, Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Groups Strategies, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
- Langbein, L.I., 1986, Money and Access: Some Empirical Evidence, “Journal of Politics” 48.
- McCormick, J.M., 2012a, Ethnic Interest Groups and American Foreign Policy: A Growing Influence?, in: Cigler, A.J., Loomis, B.A. (eds.), Interest Group Politics 8th ed., CQ Press, Washington D.C.
- McCormick, J.M. (ed.), 2012b, Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence 6th ed., Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham.
- McFarland, A., 2004, Neopluralism: The Evolution of Political Process Theory, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
- Mearsheimer, J.J., Walt, S.M., 2008, The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy, Penguin Books, London.
- Moe T.M., 1980, A Calculus of Group Membership, “American Journal of Political Science”, vol. 24, no. 4.
- Olson, M., 1971, The Logic of Collective Action, Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
- Olson, M., 1982, The Rise and decline of nations: economic growth, stagflation, and social rigidities, Yale University Press, New Haven.
- Paul, D.M., Anderson Paul, R., 2009, Ethnic Lobbies and US Foreign Policy, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.
- Redd, S.B., Rubenzer, T.P., 2005, Ethnic Minority Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy: An Experimental Study, Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
- Schattschneider, E.E., 1960, The Semisovereign People: Realist’s View of Democracy in America, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
- Shain, Y., 1999, Marketing the American Creed Abroad: Diasporas in the U.S. and Their Homelands, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Somerville, A., 2008, Narrative of the Fenian Invasion of Canada, BiblioBazaar, Charleston.
- Thomas, C.S. (ed.), 2004, Research Guide to U.S. and International Interest Groups, Praeger, Westport.
- Truman, D.B., 1951, The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion, Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
- Uslaner, E.M., 2004, All Politics Are Global: Interest Groups and the Making of Foreign Policy, in: Wilson E.J. III (ed.), Diversity and U.S. Foreign Policy, Routledge, New York.
- Uslaner, E.M., 2007, American Interests in the Balance?: Do Ethnic Groups Dominate Foreign Policy Making, in: Cigler, A.J., Loomis B.A. (eds.), Interest Group Politics 7th ed., CQ Press, Washington D.C.
- Wright J.R., 1996, Interest Groups and Congress: Lobbying, Contributions, and Influence, Allyn and Bacon, Upper Sadle River.
Publication order reference