The purpose of the article is to characterise the chosen aspects of the economists’ debate over the current economic crisis concerning its core, the reasons of breakdown, evaluation of the applied remedies, and also the prospects of capitalism. The problem of “responsibility” of the economics in the face of aforementioned issues and the new role of State in modern economy is also considered. The topics enumerated above are considered in the context of the dispute between Keynesian and Neoclassical economists about the reasons of the present economic crisis and the validity of governments’ interventions to stabilize the economies. The analysis of economists’ views concerning the core and origins of the recent economic and financial crisis and the purposefulness and effectiveness of the anti-crisis policy leads to the conclusion, that the fundamental controversies between Keynesians and Neoclassical economists in this scope continue to exist. In the crisis diagnosis, Keynesians traditionally point out the market failures. On the contrary, Neoclassicists expose failures of the State. The modern global challenges contribute to the fact that in the economists’ discussion a new approach to the role of State in the economy is visible in the direction of strengthening some of its functions, especially these connected with creation of the desired institutional order, regulation of the financial markets, stimulating the socioeconomic development and the growth of competitiveness in the international environment.