How to translate culture? The select fragments of the Polish and English translations of the short story Der Sandmann by E.T.A Hoffmann The article discusses the problems encountered by the translator when trying to convey the meaning of the source literary text into the target language. The analysed texts are fragments of the Polish and English translations of the short story Der Sandmann by E.T.A. Hoffmann, the leading representative of late German Romanticism, with the special attention paid to their correspondence with the source text. The analysed translations are the Polish one by Felicjan Faleński, made in 1867 and the English one by John Oxenford, made in 1844. For the purpose of analysing the text, the article employs Todorov’s theory of the fantastic for building an interpretation model of the Romantic short story Der Sandmann.