Od národního hnutí k folklorismu: proměna lidového oděvu v Evropě v 19. a 20. století
From National Movement to Folklorism: a transformation in folk dress in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries
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European society of the 19th and 20th centuries underwent a lot of changes which were caused by economic, social and political reasons. Due to this, European countries set their hopes on symbols of national safety which they often tried to find in the expressions of traditional folk culture. Folk dress was among the most important ones. In many European countries, the last quarter of the 18th century saw struggles to create a kind of national dress, especially in connection with the spread of Romanticism ideas. The need for national costume used to be determined by historical circumstances and the position of a particular country or ethnic group in relation to the nations surrounding them. In this way, for example, the connection of Dirndl and leather trousers in the German speaking countries, or the Norwegian bunad developed. In the sense of the Romantic opinion on the countryside, even Scottish noblemen accepted the dress coming from the Highlands in Scotland as a symbol of their political goals. In eastern- European countries, people stopped wearing folk dress on regular basis significantly later, often only in the 20th century. For this reason, regional differentness could be preserved there, which did not lead to the creation of a single type of national costume. This could not be pushed though even in the Czech lands even though the 19th and 20th centuries saw the struggles to create national dress with a strong identifying function. On the other hand, contemporary wearers and makers, while reconstructing folk garments, are more and more interested in the original local appearance and variability of folk dress.
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