PL EN


2011 | 2 | 2 | 173-194
Article title

Education Policy as Proto-fascism: The Aesthetics of Racial Neo-liberalism

Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
We argue that neo-liberal educational policy has emerged as a proto-fascist governmentality. This contemporary technology relies on State racisms and racial orderings manifested from earlier liberal and neo-liberal practices of biopower. As a proto-fascist technology, education policy, and school choice policies in particular, operate within a racial aesthetics that connects ultra-nationalisms with microfascisms of racialized bodies. We discuss historical examples of liberal school segregation and residential schools in relation to contemporary examples of chartered ethnic-identity schools to illustrate the complexities of proto-fascist education policy.
Publisher
Year
Volume
2
Issue
2
Pages
173-194
Physical description
Dates
published
2011-01-01
online
2012-02-17
Contributors
author
  • Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia, 2044 Lower Mall Vancouver, BC Canada, V6T1Z4
  • Faculty of Arts and Education, School of Education, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW Australia, 2052
References
  • Agamben, G. 2005. State of Exception. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Apple, M. W. 2001. Educating the ‘right’ way: Markets, Standards, God and Inequality. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
  • Arendt, H. 2004. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
  • Belgard, M. J. 2004. Native American Charter Schools: Culture, Language, and Self-Determination. In Rofes, E., L. Stulberg, L. (eds.). The Emancipatory Promise of Charter Schools: Towards a Progressive Politics of School Choice. Albany: State University of New York Press, 107-124.
  • Brown, W. 2003. Neo-liberalism and the End of Liberal Democracy. Theory and Event, [online] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v007/7.1brown.html
  • Bonnett, A. 2008. Whiteness and the West. In Dwyer, C., Bressey, C. (eds.). New Geographies of Race and Racism. Aldershot: Ashgate, 17-28.
  • Burchell, G. 1996. Liberal Government and Techniques of the Self. In Barry, A., Osborne, T., Rose, N. (eds.). Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neoliberalism and Rationalities of Government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Buchanan, N., Fox, R. 2004. Back to the Future: Ethnocentric Charter Schools in Hawai'i. In Rofes, E., Stulberg, L. (eds.). The Emancipatory Promise of Charter Schools: Towards a Progressive Politics of School Choice. Albany: State University of New York Press, 77-106.
  • Castells, M. 2002. The Castells Reader on Cities and Social Theory. In Susser, I., Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
  • Dei, G. J. S. 1995. Examining the Case for "African-Centered" Schools in Ontario. In McGill Journal of Education, 30 (2): 179-198.
  • Deleuze, G., Guattari, F. 1983. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Hurley, R., M., Seem, M., Lane, H. R. (Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Deleuze, G., Guattari, F. 1987. A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
  • Eatwell, R. 1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Viking Books.
  • Eco, U. 1995. Ur-fascism. The New York Review of Books [online], June 22
  • Fanon, F. 1952/2008. Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove Press.
  • Fimyar, O. 2008. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003). In Journal of Education Policy, 23 (6): 571-594.
  • Flanagan, T. 2008. Give All Parents Educational Choice, Commentary. In Globe & Mail, February.
  • Fontana, A., Bertani, M. 2003. Situating the Lectures. In Foucault, M. ‘Society Must be Defended’. New York: Picador, 273-293.
  • Foucault, M. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage/Random House.
  • Foucault, M. 1980. Two Lectures. In Gordon, C. (ed.). Power/Knowledge. Toronto: Random House.
  • Foucault, M. 1983a. Afterword: On the Genealogy of Ethics: An Overview of Work in Progress. In Dreyfus, H. L., Rabinow P. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Foucault, M. 1983b. Preface. In Deleuze, G., Guattari, F. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, xi-xiv.
  • Foucault, M. 1991. Governmentality. In Burchell, G., Gordon, C., Miller, P. (eds.). The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Foucault, M. 2003. ‘Society must be defended’: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-1976. New York: Picador.
  • George, S. 1999. A Short History of Neoliberalism. [online], June 2011
  • Gillborn, D. 2005. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform. In Journal of Education Policy, 20 (4): 485-505.
  • Gilroy, P. 2000. Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Giroux, H. A. 2004. Proto-Fascism in America: Neoliberalism and the Demise of Democracy. Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
  • Goldberg, D. T. 2009. The Threat of Race: Reflections on Racial Neoliberalism. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Goldberg, D. T. 2010. Call and Response. In Patterns of Prejudice, 44 (1): 89-106.
  • Goodwin, M. J. 2011. New British Fascism: The Rise of the British National Party. New York: Routledge.
  • Gulson, K. N. 2011. Education Policy, Space and the City: Markets and the (In) Visibility of Race. New York: Routledge.
  • Hage, G. 1998. White Nation: Fantasies of White Supremacy in a Multicultural Nation. Sydney: Pluto Press.
  • Hall, S. 2006. Cultural Identity and Diaspora. In J. Braziel, J., Manner, A. (eds.). Theorizing Diaspora. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 233-246.
  • Hedges, C. 2008. American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America. New York: Free Press.
  • James, C. E. 2011. Multicultural Education in a Color-Blind Society. In Grant, C. A., Portera, A. (eds.). In Intercultural and Multicultural Education: Enhancing Global Connectedness, New York: Routledge, 191-210.
  • Kelly, M. 2004. Racism, Nationalism and Biopolitics: Foucault's Society Must Be Defended. In Contretemps, 4, 58-70.
  • Larner, W. 2000. Neo-liberalism: Policy, Ideology, Governmentality. In Studies in Political Economy, 63, 5-25.
  • Leonardo, Z. 2010. After the Glow: Race Ambivalence and Other Educational Prognoses. In Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43, 1-24.
  • LaCapra, D. 2009. History and its Limits: Human, Animal, Violence. New York: Cornell University Press.
  • Lubienski, C. 2001. Redefining "Public" Education: Charter schools, Common Schools, and the Rhetoric of Reform, In Teachers College Record, 103 (4): 634-666.
  • Miller, J. R. 2003. Shingwauk's Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. Toronto: University of Toronto Press Inc.
  • Olssen, M. 2003. Totalitarianism and the ‘Repressed’ Utopia of the Present: Moving Beyond Hayek, Popper and Foucault, In Policy Futures in Education, 1 (3): 526-552.
  • Passmore, K. 2002. Fascism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Paxton, R. O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Pedroni, T. C. 2006. Acting Neoliberal: Is Black Support for Vouchers a Rejection of Progressive Educational Values? In Educational Studies, 40 (3): 265-278.
  • Pinar, W. F. 2001. The Gender of Racial Politics and Violence in America: Lynching, Prison Rape, and the Crisis of Masculinity. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Ransom, S. 2003. Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance, In Journal of Education Policy. 18 (5): 459-480.
  • Rofes, E., Stulberg, L. (eds.). 2004. The Emancipatory Promise of Charter Schools: Towards a Progressive Politics of School Choice. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Rose, N. 1999. Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self (2nd edition). New York: Free Association Books.
  • Tansman, A. 2009. (ed.). The Culture of Japanese Fascism. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Tikly, L. 2003. Governmentality and the Study of Education Policy in South Africa, In Journal of Education Policy, 18 (2): 161-174.
  • Webb, P. T. 2009. Teacher Assemblage. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
  • Wong, J. 2011. Why Educational Apartheid is Not the Answer to Curbing Dropout Rates for Specific Racial and Ethnic Groups. In Toronto Life [online], June 2011. http://www.torontolife.com/daily/informer/from-print-edition-informer/2011/05/31/why-educational-apartheid-is-not-the-answer-to-curbing-dropout-rates-forspecific-racial-and-ethnic-groups
  • Virilio, P. 1998. The Suicidal State. In DerDerian, J. (ed.). The Virilio Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
  • Yancey, P. 2004. Independent Black Schools and the Charter Movement. In Rofes, E., Stulberg, L. (eds.). The Emancipatory Promise of Charter Schools: Towards a Progressive Politics of School Choice. Albany: State University of New York Press, 125-158.
  • Youdell, D. 2011. School Trouble: Identity, Power and Politics in Education. New York: Routledge.
  • Zakaria, F. 1997. The Rise of Illiberal Democracy. In Foreign Affairs, 76 (6): 22-43.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.doi-10_2478_v10159-011-0009-x
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.