PL EN


2020 | 27 | 1 |
Article title

Religia i migracje wewnętrzne w procesach indonezjanizacji i islamizacji Papui Zachodniej

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PL
Abstracts
PL
Migracje wewnętrzne stanowią coraz większy problem w społeczeństwach wieloetnicznych. Indonezja jest jednym z najbardziej różnorodnych krajów na świecie i domem dla setek grup etnicznych zjednoczonych w ramach głównej idei – tożsamości narodowej. Jednak koncepcja ta pozostaje niejasna dla wielu Indonezyjczyków, szczególnie tych mieszkających poza centralną, przeludnioną Jawą i Madurą. Aby osiągnąć utopijną jedność, prezydent Suharto (1967–1998) wprowadził program „transmigracji”, który przeniósł ludzi z przeludnionych terytoriów na tak zwane „wyspy zewnętrzne”. Oficjalne plany podkreślały jego gospodarcze i rozwojowe znaczenie, ale transmigracja była również politycznym narzędziem do wprowadzenia procesów indonezjanizacji i islamizacji. Korzystając z teorii wewnętrznego kolonializmu Michaela Hechtera, autorka popiera swój argument sprawozdaniami i dokumentami dotyczącymi przypadku Zachodniej Papui we wschodniej Indonezji. Terytorium z separatystycznym doświadczeniem i silnym pragnieniem wielkiej autonomii stanowi dobry przykład prób celowej indonezjanizacji i islamizacji. Przytłaczająca liczba wewnętrznych migrantów, jawajskich muzułmanów, stopniowo osłabiała jedność chrześcijańskich Papuasów. Brak równowagi między tymi grupami powoduje ciągłe napięcie w zmieniającym się społeczeństwie. Na podstawie tego argumentu przedstawiony jest wpływ migracji wewnętrznej w szerszym kontekście. Autorka zwraca uwagę na dynamikę struktury religijnej i etnicznej przed upadkiem reżimu Nowego Ładu i po nim i twierdzi, że procesy indonezjanizacji i islamizacji mają kluczowe znaczenie dla dalszego istnienia Papuasów i rozwiązań przyjętych przez państwo indonezyjskie.
EN
Internal migrations are a growing problem in multiethnic societies. Indonesia is one of the most diverse countries in the world and home for hundreds of ethnic groups united under the main idea – national identity. But this concept remains unclear for many Indonesians, especially those living outside the central, overpopulated Java and Madura. To achieve the utopian unity, President Suharto (1967–1998) introduced the "transmigration" program, which moved people from overcrowded territories to the so-called "outer islands". The official plans emphasised its economic and development importance, but I argue that transmigration was also a political tool for introducing the processes of Indonesianisation and Islamisation. Using Michael Hechter’s theory of internal colonialism, I support my argument with reports and documents referring to the case of West Papua in Eastern Indonesia. The territory with separatist experience and a strong desire for a great autonomy serve as a good example of attempts of deliberate Indonesianisation and Islamisation. An overwhelming number of internal migrants, Javanese Muslims, gradually diluted the unity of Christian Papuans. The lack of balance between these groups creates a constant tension in a changing society. Based on the argument, I explain the influence of internal migration in a wider context. I pay attention to the dynamism of religious and ethnic structure before and after the fall of the New Order regime. I argue that the processes of Indonesianisation and Islamisation are crucial for the further existence of Papuans and solutions adopted by the Indonesian state.
Year
Volume
27
Issue
1
Physical description
Dates
published
2020
online
2020-06-30
Contributors
References
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_17951_k_2020_27_1_25-42
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